Script Interpolation

Within a <script> tag, Julia values are serialized to their equivalent Javascript. String literal values are rendered as double-quoted values.

using HypertextLiteral

v = """Brown "M&M's"!""";

@htl "<script>var x = $v</script>"
#-> <script>var x = "Brown \"M&M's\"!"</script>

Julia tuples and vectors are serialized as Javascript array. Integers, boolean, and floating point values are handled. As special cases, nothing is represented using undefined and missing using null.

v = Any[true, 1, 1.0, nothing, missing]

@htl "<script>var x = $v</script>"
#-> <script>var x = [true, 1, 1.0, undefined, null]</script>

This translation attempts to convert numbers properly.

v = (-Inf, Inf, NaN, 6.02214e23)

@htl "<script>var x = $v</script>"
#-> <script>var x = [-Infinity, Infinity, NaN, 6.02214e23]</script>

Dictionaries are serialized as a Javascript object. Symbols are converted to string values.

v = Dict(:min=>1, :max=>8)

@htl "<script>var x = $v</script>"
#-> <script>var x = {"max": 8, "min": 1}</script>

Besides dictionary objects, we support named tuples.

v = (min=1, max=8)

@htl "<script>var x = $v</script>"
#-> <script>var x = {"min": 1, "max": 8}</script>

String values are escaped to avoid <script>, </script>, and <!--.

content = """<script>alert("no injection!")</script>"""

@htl "<script>v = $content</script>"
#-> <script>v = "<\script>alert(\"no injection!\")<\/script>"</script>

content = """--><!-- no injection!"""

@htl "<script>v = $content</script>"
#-> <script>v = "--><\!-- no injection!"</script>


Sometimes you already have content that is valid Javascript. This can be printed directly, without escaping using a wrapper similar to HTML:

using HypertextLiteral: JavaScript

expr = JavaScript("""console.log("Hello World")""")

@htl "<script>$expr</script>"
#-> <script>console.log("Hello World")</script>

The JavaScript wrapper indicates the content should be directly displayed within a "text/javascript" context. We try to catch content which is not properly escaped for use within a <script> tag.

expr = """<script>console.log("Hello World")</script>"""

@htl "<script>$(JavaScript(expr))</script>"
#-> …ERROR: "Content within a script tag must not contain `</script>`"⋮

Similarly, a comment sequence is also forbidden.

expr = "<!-- invalid comment -->"

@htl "<script>$(JavaScript(expr))</script>"
#-> …ERROR: "Content within a script tag must not contain `<!--`"⋮

Script Attributes

Conversion of Julia values to JavaScript can be performed explicitly within attributes using js(), which is not exported by default.

using HypertextLiteral: js

v = """Brown "M&M's"!""";

@htl "<div onclick='alert($(js(v)))'>"
#-> <div onclick='alert(&quot;Brown \&quot;M&amp;M&apos;s\&quot;!&quot;)'>

The js() function can be used independently.

msg = "alert($(js(v)))"

@htl "<div onclick=$msg>"
#-> <div onclick='alert(&quot;Brown \&quot;M&amp;M&apos;s\&quot;!&quot;)'>

Although strictly unnecessary, slash escaping to prevent <\script> content is still provided.

v = "<script>nested</script>"

@htl "<div onclick='alert($(js(v)))'>"
#-> <div onclick='alert(&quot;&lt;\script>nested&lt;\/script>&quot;)'>


If an object is not showable as "text/javascript" then you will get the following exception.

#-> …ERROR: "Irrational{:π} is not showable as text/javascript"⋮

This can be overcome with a show() method for "text/javascript",

struct Log

function, mime::MIME"text/javascript", c::Log)
    print(io, "console.log(",, ")")

Like the HTML wrapper, you take full control of ensuring this content is relevant to the context.

print(@htl """<script>$(Log(missing))</script>""")
#-> <script>console.log(missing)</script>

Alternatively, one could implement print_script, recursively calling this function on datatypes which require further translation.

import HypertextLiteral: print_script

function print_script(io::IO, c::Log)
    print(io, "console.log(")
    print(io, ")")

print(@htl """<script>$(Log(missing))</script>""")
#-> <script>console.log(null)</script>

This method is how we provide support for datatypes in Base without committing type piracy by implementing show for "text/javascript".

Edge Cases

Within a <script> tag, comment start (<!--) must also be escaped. Moreover, capital <Script> and permutations are included. We only scan the first character after the left-than (<) symbol, so there may be strictly unnecessary escaping.

v = "<!-- <Script> <! 3<4 </ <s !>"

@htl "<script>var x = $v</script>"
#-> <script>var x = "<\!-- <\Script> <\! 3<4 <\/ <\s !>"</script>

It's important to handle unicode content properly.

s = "α\n"

#-> <script>alert("α\n")</script>